English Dialects

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Marie Inglês
11 de Janeiro de 2018
110
2 minutos
The English language learner may be anxiously surprised that the English language has many dialects, some of which they will encounter in their careers and interactions within our global village.

What is a Dialect?

Dialect is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as "a particular form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group." Individuals may have different attitudes towards the dialect of group to which they do not belong. Some may think of a dialect as referring to a non-standard form of a language. However, a dialect represents the language as spoken within a specific region or speech community.

A region's dialect, or a social group's dialect is constrained by its rules and vocabulary, unique to that form of language. How do we know that the unique dialect or form of a language spoken in a region has rules? It is because other members of the social group can acquire that dialect, and in turn speak that language, consistent with all the other members of that speech community, in terms of pronunciation, grammar, lexical choices and word sequence. It is this pattern of language use which identifies members of the social or regional group.

Question:
What social group might a English speaking person be part of, who sees a friend and exclaims, "Yo, whaddup, bro'?"

Understanding a Dialect’s Regional Zones

People within the same speech community may be spread across a narrow or wide geographic region. The wider the geographic region, the more variability will be found in the dialect. When members of a speech community migrate away from their mainstream members, their dialect will reflect variations and inclusions of grammar structures, pronunciation and vocabulary which are different from those of other mainstream members. The less a person or group migrates, the more stable their dialectal patterns.

What Influences a Dialect?

The spoken dialect may conform to cultural rules, political or religious rules. Some governments set the policy for which dialect can or cannot be spoken in the region it governs, for example, the government of China. Other dialects remain consistent when the members of that group maintain their primary residence within the group. Yet there are other forms of dialect that emerge to deliberately show evidence of the speaker's separation from the dominant group. The form of language, or dialect (word choice, grammar, and pronunciation) will vary among individuals, influenced by many factors, such as the social reason and topic for communication, social hierarchy of members within the group, ethnicity, gender and the stability of the group. Slang is a cultural form of dialect. Individual variations in the speech patterns of a group’s members will still conform to the rules of the local or regional dialect styles, which permits unimpeded communication.

Here is a test about English speakers:
  1. The excessive use of the word 'like' in sentences usually occurs in which social group?
  2. The excessive use of the word 'like' in sentences does NOT usually occur in which social group?

For English Language Learners

English language learners can benefit from understanding the variability to be found among English language teachers and English dialects. Since the professional world is also a global world, English language learners who limit their exposure to English teachers representing only one form of an English dialect, one fitting their "linguistic and cultural stereotypes", will unintentionally limit their ability to interact with the many professionals they will meet in their careers which span many global villages. (Zheng and Yihong, 2017, p. 4).

References:

J.R. Rickford, How Linguists Approach the Study of Language and Dialect. Retrieved from http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/

Xuan, Zheng, and Gao Yihong. "Language Attitude Education as ICC Facilitation: An Explorative Class." Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics 40.1 (2017): 3-20. ProQuest. 18 Dec. 2017.

$18.00
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Marie

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$18.00
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Flag
Inglês
globe
Estados Unidos
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4.880
Inglês
Nativo
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Francês
A1
I work with Intermediate English and very Advanced English students only. CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: Persuasive Essay Writing for children 10-18 years old, Grade 4 and over. Reading comprehension, and superior reading and spelling abilities by helping the child to know and produce the sounds of English letters (phonemic awareness). BUSINESS ENGLISH: Business English Communication, all circumstances. MEDICAL ENGLISH: Interaction with patients, practice for test patients, pronunciation correction. TEST YOUR ENGLISH LEVEL HERE: http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/test-your-english/ A FEW OF MY STUDENT SUCCESSES - COMMENTS Here's my SAT report. Thank you for your years of instructing and assistance for me to achieve this score. -------------- "Thank you very much for your help. You are a wonderful teacher." -- Medical Doctor, Middle East ------------- "Dear Marie!!!! I have passed the exam!!!!! Thank you very much for your great help!!!! Im so thrilled!! However, My grade is not very high, to be honest I passed with 1 point more than the threshold, very efficient 😊😊😊 thank you again!!! Looking forward to our classes!!!! You are the best proficiency teacher ever!!!" - Project Manager from Switzerland ---------------- "Dear Marie, thank you very much for your wishes. In Amsterdam the interview went well, now I have to send to them more materials, and then we will see what will happen. In the meanwhile, I got an invitation for an interview in _______ on Jan 23 for a position of post doctoral researcher. I will be interview on the project which I submitted _____. Therefore, I hope you will be able to help me to practice again together! If you agree, after the Xmas break I will send you some documents which constitute the basis of the interview." -- Ph.D. student from Amsterdam ------------- "I'm studying my mistakes right now. I realized that my problems with prepositions are finally ending. Now, I'm more confident than before to achieve my dreams. Marie, I'd like to thank you so much! Let us keep on the learning path. See you next Sunday. (thumsup)" -- IT Engineer from Brazil -------------- "Thanks Marie! You helped me a lot! My technical interview had just 15 minutes, then we started to talk in Portuguese. Unfortunately, I forgot to record my conversation. But I was confident when I spoke. Next time I'll know how to be well prepared. Continue having classes with you, it will continue improving my English."---IT Engineer from Brazil ---------- REQUESTS FROM STUDENTS Hello Marie, I was wondering whether you may have an additional spot for me tonight or tomorrow night. I will have a presentation on Wednesday afternoon, and I would like to practice. I am terrible sorry for asking only now, but I was running behind my schedule and I only finished the power point now... What do you think? With thanks, (Student from Germany) ----------- MY EDUCATION - ENGLISH -Masters Degree in Teaching English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL), Texas A&M University, 2018 -Masters Degree in Education, Cambridge University, 1992 MY EDUCATION - INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY -Project Management Professional certificate -Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) vs. 2 certificate -Healthcare IT Professional - Clinical and Workflow -Certified Professional, Electronic Health Record; Health Information Exchange INTRODUCTION I live in the United States and I specialize in pronunciation of English spoken in business in the United States. Do you want to write and speak better English for your TOEFL / TOEIC / IELTS, CAE, BEC Higher exams? Or perhaps your child is, or your children are in Grade 5, Grade 6, Grade 7, or Grade 8, and you want to improve their reading comprehension, essay writing for the American SAT Essay tests? Do you want to write better emails and proposals on your job? Would you like to improve your business conversations and negotiation skills? If you are a doctor, involved in human medicine, nurse, lawyer, IT (information technology) engineer, marketer, or a university student who wants to practice their English language skill, schedule a trial session. You selected the right person who can help you in the shortest period of time. I have the international business and healthcare information technology experience to help you master the English you need. You can find your voice practicing English with me. EXAM PREPARATION My *intermediate level* students who improve their English with my services pass their SAT Essay, TOEFL / TOEIC / IELTS, CAE, BEC Higher exams. I have a Project Management Professional certification, and have worked in information technology and healthcare corporations, both in the USA and the UK. I worked in Paris and all across North America. You can expect to learn the proper use of spoken and written English which is globally acceptable . This may help you to enhance your career options. A. TYPES OF CLASSES - Conversation - for a specific purpose or industry or job setting B. TYPES OF CLASSES - Courses - We follow the curriculum you select, which is further adjusted for your skill level and your specific needs. Please review my courses. C. TYPES OF CLASSES - Specially designed lesson plans just for you based on an assessment of your English skill levels and the areas you wish to focus on improving, e.g. pronunciation, writing, presentation skills, negotiations or vocabulary for your job or career. D. TYPES OF CLASSES - Pronunciation of English as spoken in the United States of America in business. For example, the /TH/ sound must NOT sound like the /D/ sound. Vowel sounds and vowel length. Intonation used in questions and statements of facts and other suprasegmentals features. E. RESEARCH PAPERS - Science Research Writing For Non-Native Speakers of English Students who select me as a tutor are already at the Intermediate to Advanced English skill level. Find your skill level here: http://www.britishcouncil.it/en/exam/why/english-language-levels-cefr IMPROVE YOUR PRONUNCIATION and SPEAKING SKILL - FOR ENGLISH PRESENTATIONS, PAPERS, CONFERENCES, BUSINESS MEETINGS, WORKING IN BUSINESS. I use a technique called LEARN, APPLY, TRY. We can discuss how during our session together. EVIDENCE OF MY WRITING SKILLS http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=1989212&present=true http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2015186 http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2226121# https://tamucommerce.voicethread.com/share/8012332/ http://globalbusinessenglish.blogspot.com/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=viLR277emwE&t=127s http://learnenglishfluently.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/marierichards ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS and ACADEMIC SETTINGS I can help you to improve your English for business because I have worked in American and international businesses. You will practice the language which relates to your profession. Do you give presentations in English? Do you lead business meetings with English co-workers? Do you explain information to customers? I can help you succeed using socially appropriate language. MY APPROACH I teach socially appropriate English styles and strategies, English conversations, integrated reading, grammar, vocabulary, and listening and writing skills. You gain confidence by working through the lesson plans. The training curriculum will reflect your preferences in learning, speed of learning, and frequency of online interactions and values. MY TEACHING EXPERIENCE I teach business English conversations at a local college, to professionals who want to succeed. I will help you build your belief in your abilities to succeed by your developing good study habits. I support your studies with exhaustive practice sessions and homework. You will feel your improvement with each practice session. My accent is clear and easy to understand. Keywords: Legal, law, medicine, medical, interview, preparation, tests, university, business, engineer, computer science, job interview, curriculum, plan, middle school student, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8.
Flag
Inglês
globe
Estados Unidos
time
4.880
Inglês
Nativo
,
Francês
A1
I work with Intermediate English and very Advanced English students only. CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: Persuasive Essay Writing for children 10-18 years old, Grade 4 and over. Reading comprehension, and superior reading and spelling abilities by helping the child to know and produce the sounds of English letters (phonemic awareness). BUSINESS ENGLISH: Business English Communication, all circumstances. MEDICAL ENGLISH: Interaction with patients, practice for test patients, pronunciation correction. TEST YOUR ENGLISH LEVEL HERE: http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/test-your-english/ A FEW OF MY STUDENT SUCCESSES - COMMENTS Here's my SAT report. Thank you for your years of instructing and assistance for me to achieve this score. -------------- "Thank you very much for your help. You are a wonderful teacher." -- Medical Doctor, Middle East ------------- "Dear Marie!!!! I have passed the exam!!!!! Thank you very much for your great help!!!! Im so thrilled!! However, My grade is not very high, to be honest I passed with 1 point more than the threshold, very efficient 😊😊😊 thank you again!!! Looking forward to our classes!!!! You are the best proficiency teacher ever!!!" - Project Manager from Switzerland ---------------- "Dear Marie, thank you very much for your wishes. In Amsterdam the interview went well, now I have to send to them more materials, and then we will see what will happen. In the meanwhile, I got an invitation for an interview in _______ on Jan 23 for a position of post doctoral researcher. I will be interview on the project which I submitted _____. Therefore, I hope you will be able to help me to practice again together! If you agree, after the Xmas break I will send you some documents which constitute the basis of the interview." -- Ph.D. student from Amsterdam ------------- "I'm studying my mistakes right now. I realized that my problems with prepositions are finally ending. Now, I'm more confident than before to achieve my dreams. Marie, I'd like to thank you so much! Let us keep on the learning path. See you next Sunday. (thumsup)" -- IT Engineer from Brazil -------------- "Thanks Marie! You helped me a lot! My technical interview had just 15 minutes, then we started to talk in Portuguese. Unfortunately, I forgot to record my conversation. But I was confident when I spoke. Next time I'll know how to be well prepared. Continue having classes with you, it will continue improving my English."---IT Engineer from Brazil ---------- REQUESTS FROM STUDENTS Hello Marie, I was wondering whether you may have an additional spot for me tonight or tomorrow night. I will have a presentation on Wednesday afternoon, and I would like to practice. I am terrible sorry for asking only now, but I was running behind my schedule and I only finished the power point now... What do you think? With thanks, (Student from Germany) ----------- MY EDUCATION - ENGLISH -Masters Degree in Teaching English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL), Texas A&M University, 2018 -Masters Degree in Education, Cambridge University, 1992 MY EDUCATION - INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY -Project Management Professional certificate -Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) vs. 2 certificate -Healthcare IT Professional - Clinical and Workflow -Certified Professional, Electronic Health Record; Health Information Exchange INTRODUCTION I live in the United States and I specialize in pronunciation of English spoken in business in the United States. Do you want to write and speak better English for your TOEFL / TOEIC / IELTS, CAE, BEC Higher exams? Or perhaps your child is, or your children are in Grade 5, Grade 6, Grade 7, or Grade 8, and you want to improve their reading comprehension, essay writing for the American SAT Essay tests? Do you want to write better emails and proposals on your job? Would you like to improve your business conversations and negotiation skills? If you are a doctor, involved in human medicine, nurse, lawyer, IT (information technology) engineer, marketer, or a university student who wants to practice their English language skill, schedule a trial session. You selected the right person who can help you in the shortest period of time. I have the international business and healthcare information technology experience to help you master the English you need. You can find your voice practicing English with me. EXAM PREPARATION My *intermediate level* students who improve their English with my services pass their SAT Essay, TOEFL / TOEIC / IELTS, CAE, BEC Higher exams. I have a Project Management Professional certification, and have worked in information technology and healthcare corporations, both in the USA and the UK. I worked in Paris and all across North America. You can expect to learn the proper use of spoken and written English which is globally acceptable . This may help you to enhance your career options. A. TYPES OF CLASSES - Conversation - for a specific purpose or industry or job setting B. TYPES OF CLASSES - Courses - We follow the curriculum you select, which is further adjusted for your skill level and your specific needs. Please review my courses. C. TYPES OF CLASSES - Specially designed lesson plans just for you based on an assessment of your English skill levels and the areas you wish to focus on improving, e.g. pronunciation, writing, presentation skills, negotiations or vocabulary for your job or career. D. TYPES OF CLASSES - Pronunciation of English as spoken in the United States of America in business. For example, the /TH/ sound must NOT sound like the /D/ sound. Vowel sounds and vowel length. Intonation used in questions and statements of facts and other suprasegmentals features. E. RESEARCH PAPERS - Science Research Writing For Non-Native Speakers of English Students who select me as a tutor are already at the Intermediate to Advanced English skill level. Find your skill level here: http://www.britishcouncil.it/en/exam/why/english-language-levels-cefr IMPROVE YOUR PRONUNCIATION and SPEAKING SKILL - FOR ENGLISH PRESENTATIONS, PAPERS, CONFERENCES, BUSINESS MEETINGS, WORKING IN BUSINESS. I use a technique called LEARN, APPLY, TRY. We can discuss how during our session together. EVIDENCE OF MY WRITING SKILLS http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=1989212&present=true http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2015186 http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2226121# https://tamucommerce.voicethread.com/share/8012332/ http://globalbusinessenglish.blogspot.com/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=viLR277emwE&t=127s http://learnenglishfluently.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/marierichards ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS and ACADEMIC SETTINGS I can help you to improve your English for business because I have worked in American and international businesses. You will practice the language which relates to your profession. Do you give presentations in English? Do you lead business meetings with English co-workers? Do you explain information to customers? I can help you succeed using socially appropriate language. MY APPROACH I teach socially appropriate English styles and strategies, English conversations, integrated reading, grammar, vocabulary, and listening and writing skills. You gain confidence by working through the lesson plans. The training curriculum will reflect your preferences in learning, speed of learning, and frequency of online interactions and values. MY TEACHING EXPERIENCE I teach business English conversations at a local college, to professionals who want to succeed. I will help you build your belief in your abilities to succeed by your developing good study habits. I support your studies with exhaustive practice sessions and homework. You will feel your improvement with each practice session. My accent is clear and easy to understand. Keywords: Legal, law, medicine, medical, interview, preparation, tests, university, business, engineer, computer science, job interview, curriculum, plan, middle school student, Grade 6, Grade 7, Grade 8.

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